From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 7-28
Title:The hembygd as self-knowledge and formation of, the folk: Theodor Hell-man and the creation of a poetic hembygd and central institution for a national unitary school at Murberget in Härnösand
Abstract: "Know thyself": this antique aphorism was re-actualised in the late nineteenth century as a credo for the museums of cultural history in Scandinavia. In this essay, this aphorism will be explored in close relation to the concept of hembygd. It is argued that these two concepts were intertwined into a foundation for an organic knowledge theory, which was in turn spread to a political nationalistic sphere and into the planning of a national unitary school for all classes in Sweden.
In the early twentieth century, the museum curator and elementary school inspector Theodor Hellman formulated his concept of hembygd. Through his contemporary, the philosopher Hans Larsson, the concept will be presented as an intuitive whole, i.e. as a higher poetic order of knowledge in which thought intertwines with feeling. I argue that Hellman in his hembygd reworked Larssons idea of 'intuition to a nationalistic essence. This hembygd took the Swedish people back home to a true sense of reality, to its national roots, and to an organic understanding of its place in history and society. Also, to attain scholarly legitimacy, the concept of hembygd was blended with general aspects of Cultural Darwinism to a cocktail of idealism and naturalism. As such an essence, hembygd was fundamental for the heritage institutions established in Härnösand after the dissolution of the Swedish-Norwegian Union in 1905.
Key words: Hembygd, intuition, poetic knowledge, open-air museum, elementary school teachers, national unitary school, Cultural Darwinism, Theodor Hellman, Hans Larsson.
*Mattias Bäckström, doktorand i idé- och lärdomshistoria vid Göteborgs universitet. Hans doktorsavhandling har arbetsnamnet: Fosterlandskärleken, de folkliga minnena och friluftsmuseerna i sekelskiftets Skandinavien. Mellan 1995 och 2001 arbetade han som antikvarie vid Länsmuseet Västernorrland i Härnösand.
Address:Institutionen för litteratur, idéhistoria och religion, Göteborgs universitet, Box 200, SV-405 30 Göteborg.
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 29-49
||The application of curriculum theory to museum practice affords a way to embrace shifting notions about knowledge and to make them central to the work of education. (Roberts 2006: 77)
Title: Gallery education in theory and practice. A curriculum perspective.
Abstract: This article presents a critical study of the relationship between theory and practice in the field of gallery education, within a conceptual framework borrowed from American curriculum theory from the 1970s. Inspired by Elliot Eisner's and Elisabeth Vallance's book Conflicting Conceptions of Curriculum (1974), the article individuates four conceptions within contemporary gallery education, presented within two models: 1. Gallery education based on theories of aesthetic experience, 2. gallery education based on theories of learning and cognition, 3. gallery education based on theories of curriculum and 'bildung 4. gallery education based on theories of social critique and change.
In the second part of the article, each of the four conceptions is exemplified via a systematic analysis of two contemporary Nordic or British texts on gallery education. Studies and discussions of the relationships between theory, goals and proposals for educational practices within each of this total of eight texts allow the author to argue for more precise curriculum-based reflections within Nordic gallery education practice.
Key words: Gallery education, curriculum studies, aesthetic experience, learning, bildung, social critique.
*Helene Illeris is Associate Professor of Art and Visual Culture at the Danish School of Education, Aarhus University (Denmark), and Professor II of Art Education at Telemark University College (Norway). She is also a project leader at the CAVIC (Contemporary Art and Visual Culture in Education) Nordic research network. Her research interests include gallery education with a special focus on contemporary art forms, social inclusion, aesthetic learning processes and practices of looking. For further information, see www.dpu.dk/about/illeris.
Adresse: The Danish School of Education, Tuborgvej 164, DK-2400 Copenhagen NV
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 50-63
NANA QUISTGAARD* OG BRUNO INGEMANN*
Title: What is the question? Creating a learning environment in the exhibition.
Abstract: Data presented in this paper involves asking 15-16-year-old students questions during a visit to a science centre. The hypothesis was that it is possible to create curiosity and reflection at a science centre by stimulating and facilitating a dialogue. The background was the vast amount of studies showing that unstructured free-choice school trips result in little (if any) student reflection.
We used a dialogic approach to prompt the students' curiosity and reflection. Four students were chosen to participate in the study. One of the authors took on the role as facilitator and joined each of the four students on a visit to seven exhibits (preselected by the authors) and recorded the students' interactions on video. During each visit, the facilitator made sure that the students understood how to use the exhibits so that technical/practical problems were not an issue. The researcher also conducted a brief interview adjacent to each exhibit in order to allow students to reflect upon their experiences. We also interviewed the four students one year later in order to find out how the dialogic approach had impacted these students over a longer term.
We found that the approach facilitates curiosity and reflection, and that the students had a good recollection of the visit one year later and had used insights gained from the visit. Furthermore, it appeared that the four students had different learning styles but that the facilitator was able to embrace several different learning styles through the approach. The dialogic approach thus seems to constitute a fruitful guidance tool at science centres but possibly also at other types of museum, such as art museums.
Key words: Learning, dialogue, style, curiosity, reflection, video, science centre.
* Nana Quistgaard, postdoc, ph.d.
Address: Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
* Bruno Ingemann, associate professor, ph.d.
Address: Centre for Visual Communication, Communication Studies, Roskilde University, PO. Box 260, Denmark
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 64-77
LINE HJORTH CHRISTENSEN*
Title: 'The miniature museum' - the exhibition as a metacognitive learning space.
Abstract: In university teaching contexts, exhibitions have largely been considered objects for historical or structural analysis. Using the exhibition as the subject for aesthetic practical teaching, the author argues for a reflexive, action-oriented didactic and describes a method developed in conjunction with a degree-level course in Exhibition Analysis conducted at the Department of Scandinavian Studies and Linguistics at the University of Copenhagen. The article raises the question of whether it is possible to initiate the metacognitive processes that new theories of learning emphasise as crucial for the benefits to be drawn from the teaching/learning process, by working with exhibitions in a dense, practice-based format.
Key words: exhibition, didactic, learning, metacognition.
* *Line Hjorth Christensen, ph.d., adjunkt v. Institut for Nordiske Studier og Sprogvidenskab, Københavns Universitet; ansvarshavende redaktør for tidsskriftet Danske Museer.
Adresse: Københavns Universitet Amager, Njalsgade 120, bygning 22, 2300 København S., DK
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 78-95
ELIN ROSE MYRVOLL*
Title: When archaeology meets local knowledge — ethical impications.
Abstract: Archaeologists produce and communicate authorized stones concerning cultural heritage and the past. Their legitimacy is based on education, scientific methods and their connection with a research community. Their position as authorized producers of history is also emphasized by TV programmes presenting archaeologists as riddle-solving detectives. The main aim of this article is to focus on the dynamics between stories communicated by archaeologists and the stories passed on and communicated by members of a local community, and to discuss these. What happens when stories based on tradition and lore meet authorized stories? The latter sometimes overwrite or erase local lore and knowledge connected to features in the landscape. Some archaeological projects have, however, involved local participants and locally based knowledge. In addition, one should be aware that local and traditional knowledge are sometimes kept and transmitted within a family, local community or ethnic group. Local knowledge is therefore not always a resource that is accessible for archaeologists.
Key words: Traditional knowledge, local knowledge, ethics, communication, survey, landscape, archaeology.
**Elin Rose Myrvoll
Researcher/archaeologist at the Norwegian Institutefor Cultural Heritage Research, Tromsø, Norway
Forsker/arkeolog ved Norsk institutt for kulturminneforskning, Tromsø, Norge
Adresse: NIKU, polarmiljøsenteret, NO-9296 Tromsø
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 96-108
MATTI WIKING LEINO*
Title: Seed collections in museums — new technology puts value back into worthless items.
Abstract: Nordic museums hold large collections of seed samples from the 19th century that are probably unique in a world context. These collections were originally assembled for agricultural exhibitions or educational purposes but thereafter stored in the museums and often considered meaningless objects that merely take up space. In the 21th century, however, the importance of seed collections has once again been recognized and they have been given new attention as valuable research materials. The development of molecular biology techniques has made it possible to analyze the genetic composition of seeds even though they are non-viable. In turn, these genetic analyses could help to reveal answers to questions about agricultural history, food quality and authenticity of historical plants. Here, I describe some Nordic seed collections, their research potential and ongoing research projects that make use of these special museum objects.
Key words: Seed collection, historical crop plants, agricultural history, DNA, conservation.
**Matti Wiking Leino är agronom och doktor i genetik och växtförädling. Sedan 2007 är han verksam som forskare vid Institutet för folklivs-forskning (IFF) på Nordiska museet. Forskningen är fokuserad på nyttoväxternas kulturhistoria och bedrivs delvis med molekylärbiologisk meto-dik.
Adress: Institutet för folklivsforskning,
Nordiska museet —Julita, SE-643 98 Julita.
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 109-123
ELSE-MARIE KARLSSON STRESE*
Title: Does biological diversity form a part of the museums' collective memory?
Abstract: Our old farm animal breeds and cultivated plants are products of human thought and action. Mankind and its domestic animals and plants live in a symbiotic relationship. Consequently, when dealing with agro biodiversity and conservation of plant and animal genetic resources, it is beneficial to involve knowledge derived from cultural history. Preserving and protecting biodiversity are important in many different ways — they provide working material for breeding and act as a buffer against changes in the environment, but also represent a part of our cultural history. For more than a hundred years, scientists and more recently politicians too, have discussed how to preserve biodiversity in the world. Domestic animals and plants are important parts of our heritage, hence the question: Can and should museums play a role in tackling this difficult task, and how?
Key words: Gene bank, biological diversity, culture history, museum.
**Else-Marie Karlsson Strese, Forskare
Adress: Nordiska museet
Julita — Sveriges Lantbruksmuseum,
SE-643 98 Julita
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 124-128
IRENE HELLVIK* OG HELLE RAVN*
Title: Preserving our living cultural heritage — the collecting of ornamental plants at Danish museums.
Abstract: This article is a proposal for a plan of action for preserving seed material as well as ornamental plants themselves, focused on Denmark. This is a new field of intervention. The preservation of botanical material by Danish museums has been taking place for many years, but has largely only involved plants associated with agriculture. Ornamental plants, however, have remained largely unnoticed. This is a situation that certain forces within the world of Danish museums now wish to change, in an initiative that stems mainly from a small group of museum curators and gardeners employed at Danish museums, and with Helle Ravn from Langelands Museum as primus motor.
Key words: Living cultural heritage, plant preservation, botanical heritage, seeds, ornamental plants, NordGen, national programmes, POM.
*Irene Hellvik, museumsinspektør cand.mag.
Adresse: Dansk Landbrugsmuseum, GI. Estrup, Randersvej 4, DK-8963 Auning
*Helle Ravn, museumsinspektør mag.art.
Adresse: Langelands Museum,
Jens Winthersvej 12, DK-5900 Rudkøbing
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 129-138
Abstract: This article is based on the dissertation by the author. It creates a connection between materials research and conservation and heritology. Materials research is a pan of multidisciplinary heritology and it has an important role in preserving cultural heritage. If reliable information for the documentation is needed about the materials in an object, on the origin of the object, on the authenticity of the object or on whether any restoration has been carried out previously, analyses that reveal chemical compositions must be performed. On the other hand, the materials research can be focused on examining the ageing properties of materials to find out the chemical and physical changes caused by different environmental conditions. This kind of research benefits the preservation of cultural heritage objects, because results can be applied to both preventive and active conservation. Furthermore, materials research is needed for testing and examining the conservation and restoration methods.
Key words: Materials research, conservation, restoration, documentation, authenticity.
*Ulla Knuutinen is a senior lecturer in conservation chemistry and materials research at Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences in Conservation Education
Address: Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Lummetie 2b, 01300 Vantaa, Finland
From Nordisk Museologi 2010/1, Abstract pp. 141-143
Abstract: This article discusses the activities and impact of the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education (Högskoleverket) and the two evaluations of Swedish museology that this body has carried out.
Key words: Evaluation, museology, museum studies, examination right.
** Mr. Janne Vilkuna is Professor of Museology and the Director of the University Museum at Jyväskylä University, Finland.
Address: Museology, P.O. Box35 (G), FIN-400 14 Jyväskylä University