From Nordisk Museologi 2012/1, Abstract pp. 4-19
BEATE KNUTH FEDERSPIEL *
Title: Cultural heritage — a concept up for negotiation.
Abstract: The international organisations active in the field of cultural conservation represent the normative framework for the protection of culture and heritage. Within this administrative and legal system, ideas about the overall meaning of the cultural heritage preservation concept are created and disseminated, and these have implications for museums’ obligations (collection, recording, conservation, research and communication), which collectively can be seen as society’s overall effort to preserve cultural heritage.
The subject of this article is to examine how cultural conservation efforts shift focus in step with changes in society’s overall understanding of the concept of cultural heritage — which by nature is the object of these conservation efforts. The most recent UNESCO conventions on culture (The Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and The Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions) testify to a growing appreciation of the value of this overall concept, focusing on people, right down to individual level — whereas focus was previously on national unity and a shared ”story” as the identification markers. The situation may seem especially justified by the distinction between tangible and intangible heritage, in which the intangible is increasingly taken into account. This article highlights key concepts and the continuing debate about their importance in the normative system. The emphasis is on the increasing value attributed to the concept of heritage, and the distinction between tangible and intangible heritage. Against this background, possible consequences for the basic conservation effort are discussed, because this is the foundation of the fundamental idea of what a museum is, as well as justifying the normative system in the field of culture.
Key words: Cultural heritage, intangible cultural heritage, cultural conservation, preservation theory, cultural heritage ecology.
*Beate Knuth Federspiel. Associate professor. Field of specialization: Heritage preservation.
Address: Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademis Skoler for Arkitektur, Design og Konservering. Konservatorskolen, Esplanaden 34, DK-1263 København K
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/1, Abstract pp. 20-34
Morten Karnøe Søndergaard* & Robert R. Janes *
Abstract: Focusing on the present situation in the Nordic museum scene, entailing economic pressures and restructuring, this article introduces the thoughts and ideas of Canadian museum expert and author, Robert R. Janes, to put things in perspective. After revisiting the 2009 book “Museums in a Troubled World”, authored by Janes, a discussion between the authors is presented which focuses on the complexities of collaboration between museums and business. Finally a “hands on” section is included, in which different types of possible collaborations are examined. In this section, the topic of value creation is also addressed, as it is pointed out which measures might be necessary to rebuild a position of relevancy in society for the Nordic museums.
Key words: Museum development, museum business collaboration, value mediation, strategies, business literacy, museum relevancy, tradition, social responsibility.
*Morten Karnøe Søndergaard, Professor
Address: Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 2, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
*Robert R. Janes, Editor-in-Chiefi Museum Management and Curatorship
Address: 104 Prendergast Place, T1W2N5, Canmore, Alberta, Canada
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/1, Abstract pp. 35-55
Summary: As museums are shifting their traditional focus away from collections and toward their audiences, they are experimenting with new strategies for communication and participation. Consequently, in recent years, a large number of outreach and visitor engagement projects, implemented by museums, have seen the light of day. Although these projects vary significantly in design and setting, they are typically informed by ideas of inclusion, dialogue, and sharing of knowledge — principles that have been inspired by social media and significantly improved by developments in digital technologies. Despite the increasing numbers of museum-facilitated outreach projects, we still know relatively little about the qualitative outcomes for either users or museums. This article investigates the potential impact of including an outreach component in a new museum project that combines an urban setting and the use of digital media.
Key words: Digital outreach, interaction, user participation, personalization, authority, trust.
*Maja Rudloff, PhD fellow
Address: Institute for literature, Media and Culture University of Southern Denmark Campusvej 55 DK-5230 Odense M
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/1, Abstract pp. 56-74
Title: Two sides of the same battle — an analysis of the exhibitions at the Ncome Blood River battle site.
Abstract: In 1838, Afrikaners won a battle against a Zulu army far superior in numbers. In the 1990s, two museums were set up at the site of this battle. The Blood River Museum celebrates the Afrikaners’ victory, while Ncome Museum marks the heroism of the Zulus. The article deals with how these museums are using the same historical event in two different ways. After 1994, the anniversary of the battle (16 December) was designated Day of Reconciliation. Yet there is little reconciliation visible in the exhibitions. Zulus and Afrikaners are portrayed as diametrical opposites, while the internal conflicts among the Zulu and among the Afrikaners are ignored. Dichotomisation and exclusion thus occupy a clearer place in these exhibitions than any message of reconciliation.
Key words: South Africa, exhibition analysis, Ncome, Blood River, Zulu, Afrikaner.
*Line Grønstad. Mastergrad i kulturvitskap frå Universitetet i Bergen og Master of business administration (MBA) frå Høgskulen i Bodø. Har arbeidd som kulturforskar hos Agderforskning, og er no ved Norsk etnologisk gransking ved Norsk Folkemuseum.
Address: Agderforskning Gimlemoen 19, N-4630 Kristiansand
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/1, Abstract pp. 75-88
CECILIA RODÉHN *
Title: Do wage subsidies help make museums more democratic?
Abstract: This paper investigates whether the labour market measure known as wage subsidies, coupled with lifelong learning, contributes to a more democratic museum. The paper begins with an investigation of the historical and political implications of wage subsidies at the Jamtli county museum in Östersund, Sweden. The paper continues by exploring whether lifelong learning and learning at the workplace contribute to further learning and rehabilitation of the persons employed via such labour market measures. The paper concludes with a discussion of whether lifelong learning and labour market measures can contribute to further preservation and mediation of cultural heritage and, furthermore, whether if they can make museums more democratic and accessible. The research was carried out at Jamtli during the spring of 2010, and is based on qualitative interviews and archival studies in the museum in question.
Key words: Wage subsidies, Swedish cultural politics, lifelong learning, disabled, democracy.
Address: Institutionen för ABM, Uppsala Universitet Box 625, SE-75126 Uppsala
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/1, Abstract pp. 89-91
CECIL KRARUP ANDERSEN *
Title: Lined Danish Golden Age Paintings. An investigation into how linings affect paintings' sensitivity to moisture.
Abstract: The National Gallery of Denmark hosts the largest collection of Danish Golden Age paintings from the first half of the nineteenth century. Many of these paintings are reinforced from the back with a canvas. This treatment is called a lining and the project aims to find out how the different linings applied have changed the physical properties of the paintings. The materials used in the paintings and the linings are therefore analyzed and lined models are tested under different moisture conditions. The aim is to establish what the long-term effects of DVL these linings are and how the linings affect the paintings' sensitivity to moisture.
Key words: Paintings, lining, Danish Golden Age, relative humidity, tensile test.
*Cecil Krarup Andersen
Adresse: Det kongelige Danske Kunstakademis skoler for Arkitektur, Design og Konservering Esplanaden 34, DK-1263 København K